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project was initiated as a cooperative U.S.-Hungarian
scientific effort to establish a long-term monitoring
site in Hungary. The main purpose of the project
was to obtain regionally representative carbon
dioxide mixing ratio and flux (NEE) data in Hungary.
The TV and radio transmitter tower (owned by Antenna
Hungária Corp.) is located in a flat region of
Hungary (46°57'21''N, 16°39'08''E), at an
altitude of 248 m above sea level, near a small
village called Hegyhátsál.
The tower is surrounded by agricultural fields
(mostly crops and fodder of annually changing
types) and forest patches.
Measurements of CO2
mixing ratio profiles,
temperature, humidity and wind profiles began
in September 1994. Flux
measurements began in April 1997. The tower
is also a NOAA ESRL global air sampling network
site (site code: HUN). Air is sampled once per
week using glass flasks and the samples are analyzed
at NOAA ESRL
Global Monitoring Division for CO2,
CH4, CO, H2, N2O
and SF6, and at the Institute for Arctic
and Alpine Research of the University of Colorado
for the stable isotopes of C and O in CO2
(*13C and *18O). In 1998,
the instrumentation was extended with a second
direct flux measuring system owned by AIST,
Japan (the former NIRE). To extend the vertical
mixing ratio measurements up to the top of the
planetary boundary layer occasionally air samples
are taken over the tower by means of a small aircraft.
Beginning with 2006, frequent in situ airborne
carbon dioxide mixing ratio profiles will be measured
using gas analyzer made by AOS, Inc. Most recently,
measurements has been started to monitor the atmospheric
mixing ratio of CH4, CO, N2O
tower belongs to the developing European network
of tall tower sites which will monitor all important
greenhouse gases to support the Kyoto Protocol
and climate research with high precision, spatially
Please visit the Measurements
section of the website for more details.
CO2 mixing ratio data is available
at the website.