History of the Department of Meteorology
The Early Years
major development of Meteorology (both in education and research)
is related to the regular meteorological observations. First, Ferenc
Weiss recorded weather phenomena regularly at the University of
Nagyszombat from 1753. Then, the University moved to Buda so meteorological
observations continued in the University Observatory (called Csillagda)
located in the Buda Castle until 1818, and later (1818–1848) at
its new site in Gellért Hill. After the initiation of the
Hungarian Academy of Sciences the Hungarian Royal Institute of Meteorology
and Geomagnetism has been established in 1870. In the meanwhile,
institution of a university department has been arisen.
the 20th century the idea presented itself from time to time. Endre
Héjas suggested to establish a department for meteorology
at the University of Budapest in 1906. Then, again in 1919. Meteorology
already became part of the various courses: Lajos Lóczy taught
it in his lectures Physical Geography and Descriptional
Geography, Radó Kövesligethy regularly offered courses
Meteorology since 1890. Furthermore, Climatology was
offered by Géza Czirbusz, and other meteorology-related courses
were offered by Jenő Klupathy. Professors and tutors in meteorology
worked for the University all the time, and an independent and permanent
Department of Meteorology was needed but never established.
in 1926 and later, in 1938, on the annual assembly of the Hungarian
Meteorological Society several proposals for establishing a university
department have been presented but they have been inefficient for
two decades. Finally, in 1945 the Department of Meteorology has
Institution of the Department of Meteorology
the department was established at the Pázmány Péter
(later Eötvös Loránd) University in Budapest in
1945, it was called Department of Atmospheric and Climatology Sciences.
The first head of the department was József Száva-Kováts.
The department belonged to the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, and
it was located in the main University building at the Múzeum
University structure has been changed in 1949: 22 departments and
institutes, the Botanical Garden, the Institute of Physical Chemistry
and the Institute of Human Science formed the Faculty of Science.
In 1953 the department had the present name: Department of Meteorology.
head of the department was József Száva-Kováts
in the period of 1949-1953. Then, he and Tamás Révész
were removed from their position and relocated because of fictitious
political accusation. So Frigyes Dési became the head of
the department from 1953 until 1970, he was followed by Zoltán
Dobosi in 1970, Ferenc Rákóczi in 1983, and when professor
Rákóczi retired Judit Bartholy became the head in
department located at the Ludovika square in the period 1986-1998,
then it moved to Lágymányos, to the new University
Education of Meteorologists at the Eötvös University
the Department of Meteorology was established in 1945 education
of meteorologists has not begun for 5 years. The first students
specialized in meteorology were admitted in 1950, their studying
period lasted 4.5 years. The first diplomas in meteorology were
issued in September 1954. So 113 meteorologists graduated in the
following 4 years (1954-1957). Both theoretical and practical courses
were taught at high level in this period. Due to low number of departmental
staff several lectures and seminars needed teachers (who are experts
in their research area) from the Hungarian Meteorological Institute.
this first period, due to the increased 5-year plan of the political
era too many meteorologists graduated in very short time period.
In order to stabilize the situation, namely, train as many meteorologists
as needed at the Hungarian Meteorological Institute but also keeping
in mind that all the graduated scientists must be able to find a
job, a new strategy must have been worked out. So from 1957 the
education of a meteorologist increased up to 5 years, and remained
that until now.
to the new educational strategy students specialized in mathematics,
physics, or geography (or high-school teaching of these subjects)
could choose meteorology as a secondary specialization. Students
who were interessted in meteorology had extra course work related
to meteorology for 2 years, and then they had to decide whether
or not have a secondary specialization and get an extra diploma
in meteorology. If they decided to study meteorology as well, they
could even replace some of their orginal courses by meteorology
courses. The first sudents with this type of extra diploma in meteorology
graduated in 1962. During the previous 4 years (1958-61) no students
graduated as a meteorologist. Then, until 1980, 92 young scientist
graduated with a secondary diploma in meteorology.
from the academic year 1980/81 students can be specialized solely
in meteorology, and get a diploma as a meteorologist. This innovation
in the education was necessary due to the recent rapid development
and change in science (computer science, satellites in the Space,
environmental problems, etc.). So new courses were offered and included
in the meteorology curriculum, e.g., Numerical weather prediction,
Satellite meteorology, Environmental protection, etc.